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reason the enemy of belief

Unbowed Atheist first appeared as a Demetrios Vakras blog when 10 articles were published on 15 June 2013. These articles can still be found at



second essay [gelded - re-edited, later] 7/1/2015

The Nazis objected to surrealism, claiming it advanced Jewish interests

(1) Surrealism defined by the state art museum (NGV) 26/12/2013 (above): surrealism is anti-religion; surrealists considered religion to be a mechanism that contributes to war.

In the 2009 surrealist exhibition, Humanist Transhumanist, religion was condemned for its assault on secular values (2). Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Zoroastrianism were criticised.


The owner of the gallery, Robert Cripps (who now runs an entertainment venue, Ruby's Music Room), proclaimed that criticism of Islam (out of all the religions criticised) constitutes "racism". I wrote about Cripps' bizarre proclamations and the actions he took in 2009 and in 2011 he sued for defamation, claiming what was written was an "injurious falsehood". The case was heard by Emilios Kyrou.

This page is an analysis of Kyrou's ruling in the context of what surrealism is.

Kyrou ruled about surrealist works, which, being surrealist, are atheist.

The views and attitudes held on surrealism by the Nazis:

The Nazis saw in the anti-religious nature of surrealism an attribute that was Jewish; saw in surrealism a manifestation of something Jewish; something that aided a Jewish idea, a Jewish objective or Jewish understanding, or expressed a sentiment that was Jewish; and in doing this "Jewish act", with that act being a surrealist's rejection of religion, surrealism harmed non-Jews and that this benefited Jews.

Regarding the criticism I made of religion in 2009, Emilios Kyrou, Αιμίλιος Κύρου, ruled in 2014, that criticism (of Islam) harmed non-Jews, "Palestinians", who both he and Cripps agreed were Muslims (to the exclusion of other Palestinians who are not Muslim, such as the Jews of Palestine).

That is, Αιμίλιος Κύρου found that the criticism of Islam could be seen to be beneficial to Jews at the expense of non-Jews (Muslims).
Kyrou ruled that atheist criticism of religion (Islam), made in a surrealist exhibition, (which criticised Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism as well) would assist a Jewish interest, with that Jewish interest being the "Jew's state in Palestine" which was not mentioned or alluded to. And that this harmed the non-Jews of "Palestine”, Muslims. Kyrou's ruling has it that "Palestinians" are "oppressed" (Kyrou's ruling is available on Austlii).

Αιμίλιος Κύρου ruled that since what was written could be seen to assist a Jewish cause, to do so was a negative (even though that cause was entirely outside the ambit of the criticism of religion made in the exhibition).

For the Nazis, the atheism of surrealism was associated with aiding Jew's "nefarious aims". The "nefarious aim" striven for by "the Jews" that my art was claimed to aid was one which Adolf Hitler objected to in Mein Kampf, the establishing of a Jewish state in "Palestine".


Andre Breton:

"Everything that is collapsing, shifty, infamous, sullying and grotesque is summed up for me in this single word: God"



1. The Nazis objected to surrealism because it was atheist and they were Christian.
2. The Nazi's associated atheism with Jews because the Nazis were Christians. 
3. The Nazi's understanding of atheism as a rejection of god (Christ), was a specifically Christian understanding of "atheist" in which the rejection of Christ (god) is defined by the New Testament; it was the Jews who were the deniers of Christ (god).
With regards to this last point, Greek Orthodox Christians descriptions of surrealism characterise it as "Jewish" and do so on the same grounds as the Nazis.

Note, the quote from the New Testament regarding “anti-Christs” (2), is the Biblical reference to Jews who had rejected Christ as god which was criticised in the 2009 exhibition.


There was nothing about my work or the criticism of religion in the exhibition that pertained to a Jewish cause of any kind, let alone "the Jewish cause in Palestine".

The association of my criticism of religion, with Jews, was made by Cripps. And Kyrou, the judge, agreed that an associated benefit for the Jews of Israel arose from my simply having criticised religion, de rigueur surrealism.

This association with Jews, and surrealism (which is atheist), is an ongoing and consistent theme.

This association with Jews AS A NEGATIVE that one must not support, is an ongoing and consistent theme.

There was never anything in surrealism that could ever lead anyone to claim that surrealism served a Jewish cause, interest, or purpose, but that did not stop various antisemites, such as the Nazis, from proclaiming that surrealism aided Jewish interests and claiming that it was Jewish.


Surrealism as anti-religion "pro-Jewish". The case of  L'Âge d'Or

When Dalí proclaimed Buñel's film L'Âge d'Or  to be a deliberate attack on Catholicism the result was an attack of the theatre it was screening in by the "Anti-Jewish Youth Group".

It needs to be EMPHASISED that this film with a complete absence of reference to Jews, was associated with Jews because the film attacked religion, Christian religion. According to Christian doctrine, (the New Testament), an attack on religion and rejection of god means “the Jews" and Christians define "atheism" through the prism of their irrational faith. Greek Orthodox Christians continue to denounce surrealism as "Jewish".

When the Nazis came to power, surrealism, which was known to be avowedly anti-religious, was targeted, because the Nazis were Christians. (See also, Hitler, the perfect Christian)


In the infamous Degenerate Art exhibition organised by the Nazis, the first and foremost objection to the artists exhibited was that their works were “demeaning of religion”. The Dadaists were attacked as an example of the Jewish degradation of culture. Slogans derided the art for its “insolent mockery of the divine”, and claimed the art to be a “revelation of the Jewish racial soul”.

Max Ernst, the Dadaist/surrealist was named and one of his works prominently featured. That work, Ernst's 1923 painting, "The Creation of Eve," or La Belle Jardinie're, (“The Beautiful Gardener”) was deemed offensive.

(5) Hitler entering the notorious Entartete Kunst (degenerate art) exhibition in 1937. The signage reads "Dada" (out of which evolved surrealism), and refers to the surrealist "ernst" (Max Ernst).

(6) Hitler inside the Entartete Kunst (degenerate art) exhibition in 1937. Max Ernst's painting, The Creation of Eve can be clearly seen.

(7) Max Ernst's, The Creation of Eve, offensive to Nazis, "demeaning to religion" and an "insult to German womanhood". The whereabouts of Ernst's work, or whether it survived the Nazis, is unknown.


It was the Christianity of the Nazis that led to both the targeting of surrealists (atheists), and attributed to Jews the surrealists’ atheism.
And it is this very fact, that the Nazis were Christian, that Kyrou made certain is now unlawful to reference. To do so now:
1.  constitutes an "association" with Hitler (and the Nazis) which Kyrou ruled constitutes an "egregious defamation"; and,
2. Kyrou ruled that the Nazis committed their genocide of Jews because of some innate “Aryan Supremacist" racism and not their Christianity which was criticised in the 2009 exhibition.

In Australia, judge Emilios Kyrou has ruled that histoical references can be prohibited by law since they can "associate" an idea held by an individual with an idea held by someone "universally (or widely) reviled". And since ideas are held by individuals who believe their ideas define them, showing the ideas they hold were also held by people reviled will cause such persons to be "defamed".

George Santayana:

"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."


See also vakras-art-unlawful.html


A belief is not the equivalent to a logical corollary. And, a logical corollary is not "an opinion". Australia's judiciary conflate these concepts and deem them to be of the same meaning.